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Myanmar” before the British colony, “Burma” during the colony (in the 19th Century), came back as Myanmar when the British left…we are today calling our country “Republic of Union of Myanmar” since 2011, the last election done in Myanmar. New government initiated many reforms although many challenges remain after more than 5 decades of totalitarian rules). Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group which was taking the lead of the country before and after the colonialism. Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar". Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Bama or Myamah

Myanmar is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.
One third of Burma's total perimeter forms an uninterrupted coastline along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea.
With its 676,578 km²; Myanmar is the world's 40th largest country and the second largest in Southeast Asia.
Its capital city is Naypyitaw and its largest city is Yangon and followed by Mandalay.

Ethnicity Myanmar is ethnically diverse. The government recognizes 135 distinct ethnic groups. While it is extremely difficult to verify this statement, there are at least 108 different ethno linguistic groups in Myanmar. 68% of the population is Barma. The remains percentage is distributed among different ethnic like Shan (9%), Karen (7%), Rakhine (3.5%), Chinese (2.5%), Mon (2%), Kachin (1.5%), Indians (1.3%), Chin (1%), Kayah (1%) and other (5%).

Religions Many religions are practiced in Myanmar. A large majority of the population practices Buddhism; estimates range from 80% to 89%. Theravada Buddhism is the most widespread. Some religious as Catholic, Hindu and Muslim are present in Myanmar but it remains a low percentage. Religious edifices, monasteries are open for national and international.


Nay Pyi Daw

Largest city

Yangon (Rangoon)

Official language


Official Scripts

Burmese script




Unitary presidential
constitutional republic

Independence (UK)


Coup d'Etat


New constitution




Pop (2014 census)

51'419'420 inhab


Kyat (MMK)

Time Zone

MST (UTC +06.30)



Phone code


Language Burmese, the mother tongue of the Bamar and official language of Myanmar, is related to Tibetan and to the Chinese languages. Burmese language is written in a script consisting of circular and semi-circular letters.
It is also used to write Pali, the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism, as well as several ethnic minority languages, including Shan, several Karen dialects and Kayah (Karenni), with the addition of specialized characters and diacritics for each language.

Resources The major agricultural product is rice, which covers about 60% of the country's total cultivated land area.
Burma produces precious stones such as rubies, sapphires pearls and jade. There are mainly coming from upper Myanmar (Kachin and Shan).
Gold and silver are available in Myanmar and common use. Every corner in Myanmar is enlightened by gold.
It is easy to find stone or Gold/silver all around Myanmar in the traditional market.

Climate Much of the country lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. It lies in the monsoon region of Asia, with its coastal regions receiving over 5,000 mm (196.9 in) of rain annually.
The climate changes considerably between upper and lower Myanmar. Northern regions of the country are the coolest.



delta region

2,500 mm (98.4 in)

Northern regions

Coastal and delta regions

Dry Zone (central Myanmar)

< 1,000 mm (39.4 in)

21 °C (70 °F)

32 °C (89.6 °F)

The best time to visit Myanmar is between November to February. During these months it rains least (if not at all) and it is not so hot.

March to May brings intense heat. At this time, the daily temperatures in Yangon (Rangoon) often reach 40ºC (104ºF), while areas around Bagan and Mandalay go a few digits higher.

The southwest monsoon starts between mid-May and mid-June, bringing frequent rains that dunk the country through till October, peaking from July to September. The dry zone (between Mandalay and Pyay) gets the least rain. Roads anywhere (and particularly in the delta region) can become impassable. Rakhine State bears the full force of the rains – often exceeding 195inch (495cm) of rain annually

Tourism Since few years the government encourages the tourism in the country. Every year we can see an increase of tourist visiting Myanmar.
The famous destination will be around the historic and religious monuments (Yangon, Mandalay, Pindaya, Bago, Bagan & Mrauk-U), natural trails (Inle Lake, Putao, Pyin Oo Lwin), the beaches Nagpali, Ngwe-Saung,Maung Ma Gan, and Islands Myiek, Kaw Thaung).
Up to now there is no connection by road between Myanmar and the neighboring country. The only way to enter in the country is by flight. More companies started to come directly to Yangon but it is still limited and the common and easy way to go in and out of the country is still by Thailand.
Myanmar has started to open its borders but access remains limited but for tourist and mainly for foreigner access to some location is still restricted. ( Theoretically all locations within the country are accessible by bus, train, flight and/or boat. But here again some location are accessible only by flight for the foreigner. Bus lines are well develop presenting good services and deserve practically all destinations but the train remains still a challenge to use especially during night time.

Public Holidays

National public holidays 2015

  • * Independence Day is on Sunday, 4 January 2015
  • * Union Day is on Thursday, 12 February 2015
  • * Peasants’ Day is on Monday, 2 March 2015
  • * Full Moon of Tabaung is on Thursday, 5 March 2015
  • * Armed Forces Day is on Friday, 27 March 2015
  • * Maha Thingyan (Water Festival) is on Monday, 13 April 2015 (usually 5 days holiday)
  • * Myanmar New Year is on Friday, 17 April 2015
  • * May Day is on Friday, 1 May 2015
  • * Full Moon of Kason (Buddha’s Birthday) is on Monday, 1 June 2015
  • * Full Moon of Waso (Beginning of Buddhist Lent) is on Wednesday, 1 July 2015
  • * Martyrs’ Day is on Sunday, 19 July 2015
  • * Full Moon of Thadingyut (End of Buddhist Lent) is on Tuesday, 27 October 2015
  • * Full Moon Day of Tazaungmone is on Thursday, 26 November 2015
  • * National Day is on Tuesday, 8 December 2015
  • * Christmas Day is on Friday, 25 December 2015


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Central bank of Myanmar | 2022-08-16

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